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Perspectives on Environment and Behavior Theory, Research, and Applications En

Perspectives on Environment and Behavior Theory, Research, and Applications En

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Format:Paperback
ISBN-13:9781468422795Language:English
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Perspectives on Environment and Behavior

The inception of this volume can be traced to a series of Environmental Psychology Colloquia presented at the University of California, Irvine, dur­ ing the spring of 1974. These colloquia were held in conjunction with Social Ecology 252, a graduate seminar on Man and the Environment. Although the eight colloquia covered a wide range of topics and exemplified a diversity of research techniques, they seemed to converge on some common theoretical and methodological assumptions about the na­ ture of environment-behavioral research. The apparent continuities among these colloquia suggested the utility of developing a manuscript that would provide a historical overview of research on environment and be­ havior, a representation of its major concerns, and an analysis of its concep­ tual and empirical trends. Thus, expanded versions of the initial presen­ tations were integrated with a supplemental set of invited manuscripts to yield the present volume of original contributions by leading researchers in the areas of ecological and environmental psycho

FORMAT
Paperback
LANGUAGE
English
CONDITION
Brand New


Publisher Description

The inception of this volume can be traced to a series of Environmental Psychology Colloquia presented at the University of California, Irvine, dur- ing the spring of 1974. These colloquia were held in conjunction with Social Ecology 252, a graduate seminar on Man and the Environment. Although the eight colloquia covered a wide range of topics and exemplified a diversity of research techniques, they seemed to converge on some common theoretical and methodological assumptions about the na- ture of environment-behavioral research. The apparent continuities among these colloquia suggested the utility of developing a manuscript that would provide a historical overview of research on environment and be- havior, a representation of its major concerns, and an analysis of its concep- tual and empirical trends. Thus, expanded versions of the initial presen- tations were integrated with a supplemental set of invited manuscripts to yield the present volume of original contributions by leading researchers in the areas of ecological and environmental psychology.

Table of Contents

Section I. Introduction.- 1. Origins and Directions of Environment-Behavioral Research.- An Overview of Ecological and Environmental Psychology.- Ecological Psychology.- Environmental Psychology.- Toward an Integrated Field of Environment and Behavior.- Core Themes of Environment-Behavioral Research.- Directions for Future Research and Theoretical Development.- Summary.- References.- Section II. Ecological Psychology.- 2. Behavioral Ecology.- Some Background.- Some General Implications.- Defining Attributes of Behavioral Ecology.- Naturalism in Methodology.- Distributions of Phenomena.- Behavioral Focus.- Environment and Behavior.- Site Specificity and Place Dependencies.- Ecological Diagnosis.- Systems Concepts and Analogies.- Long Time Periods.- Taxonomy.- Molar Phenomena and Nonreductionism.- Transdisciplinary Emphasis.- Habitability.- Small Rates.- Evaluation of Natural Experiments.- Concluding Comments.- References.- 3. From Church to Laboratory to National Park: A Program of Research on Excess and Insufficient Populations in Behavior Settings.- Behavior Settings.- Manning Theory.- A Reformulation of the Manning Notions.- Questions for Research.- A Laboratory Study of Manning.- A Follow-up Laboratory Study of Manning.- Design, Equipment, and Procedure.- Dependent Variables.- Observation Scheme.- Subjects.- Results.- Effects of Manning Conditions.- Interrelationships Between Dependent Variables.- Conclusions from the Completed Research.- Focus on Service Behavior Settings.- Effects of Staffing and Population Levels on Occupants of Service Behavior Settings.- Conceptual Considerations.- Empirical Research.- Adaptive Mechanisms for Avoiding or Reducing Overpopulation of Service Behavior Settings.- Conceptual Considerations.- Empirical Research.- Postscript.- Acknowledgments.- References.- Section III. Environmental Psychology.- 4. Environmental Psychology: Origins and Development.- Environmental Psychology: Some History.- Factors Underlying the Emergence of Environmental Psychology.- Value-Methodological Properties of the Field.- The Future of Environmental Psychology: Some Analysis and Speculation.- Conferences.- References.- 5. Behavioral and Physiological Effects of Uncontrollable Environmental Events.- Noise and Task Performance.- Aftereffects of Unpredictable Noise.- Perceived Control over Noise.- Perceived Control and Helplessness.- Other Stressors.- Psychic Costs of Stress.- Uncontrollable Events and Coronary Heart Disease.- Pattern A and CHD.- Pattern A, Uncontrollable Events, and CHD.- Directions for Future Research.- Concluding Remarks.- References.- 6. Beyond the Effects of Crowding: Situational and Individual Differences.- Demographic Data.- Research on Crowding.- Determinants of the Effects of Crowding.- Crowding Effects as a Function of Architecture and Personal Territory.- Crowding Effects as a Function of Type of Activity.- Crowding Effects as a Function of Individual Differences.- Psychological Effects as a Function of Relationship to the Environment.- A Model of Social and Spatial Crowding Stresses.- Summary.- Acknowledgments.- References.- 7. Simulation Techniques in Environmental Psychology.- Varieties of Environmental Simulation.- Development of the Berkeley Environmental Simulation Laboratory.- Uses of Dynamic Perceptual Simulation.- The Environmental Decision-Maker as Applied Psychologist.- The Everyday Environment as a Complex, Multidimensional Entity.- Validation of the Berkeley Simulator.- Further Development and Application.- References.- Section IV. Applications of Behavioral Research to Environmental Design.- 8. Action Research.- References.- 9. From Congruence to Antecedent Conditions: A Search for the Basis of Environmental Improvement.- Congruence.- The Context of Man-Environment Relations I.- The Context of Man-Environment Relations II.- Acknowledgments.- References.- 10. Participation in the Design Process: A Cognitive Approach.- Problem Solving and the Expert.- On Some Intellectual Assets of Ordinary People.- Engaging the Human Capacity.- The Interface with Reality: Experimental Evidence.- Applications.- References.- 11. Preference and Everyday Nature: Method and Application.- The Case of the Roadside.- Conclusions and Implications.- The Case of the Drain.- Verbal and Visual Parallels.- Preference, Regional and "Universal".- Familiarity: Another Factor in Preference.- Some Research Dos.- Data as a Form of Participation.- A Conceptual Grasp of the Environment.- References.- 12. Who Needs What When: Design of Pluralistic Learning Environments.- Internal-External Locus of Control.- The Relevance of Architecturally Oriented Research.- Designing for Environment-Behavioral Congruence in the Classroom.- References.- 13. The Relevance of Crowding Experiments to Urban Studies.- Why Experimentation?.- Theories of Urbanism.- The Role of Crowding Experiments.- Concluding Remarks.- Acknowledgments.- References.- Section V. Directions of Research on Environment and Behavior.- 14. Some Problems of Strategy in Environmental Psychology.- Theoretically Focused Views.- Problem-Centered Views.- Psychology and the Environmentalist Movement.- Psychology and the Man-Made Environment.- Concluding Comments.- References.- 15. Research on Environment and Behavior: A Personal Statement of Strategy.- The Perspective of Social-Unit Analysis.- Implementing a Social-Unit Analysis.- Case 1: Social-Isolation Studies.- Case 2: An Analysis of Home Environments (Altman, Nelson, and Lett, 1972).- Case 3: Dominance and Territorial Behavior (Sundstrom and Altman, 1974).- Case 4: Nonverbal Behavior and Acquaintanceship (Keiser and Altman, 1974).- Summary and Implications.- What a Social-Unit Analysis Is Not.- What Social-Unit Analysis Requires by Way of New or Expanded Skills.- A Capstone Thought.- References.- 16. Methodological Developments in Environment-Behavioral Research.- Theory and the Problem-Oriented Nature of the Area.- Methodological Threats to Theoretical Development.- Internal Validity.- Statistical-Conclusion Validity.- Construct Validity.- External Validity.- Experiential Realism.- Research Designs.- Quasi-Experimental Designs.- Experimental Designs.- Exploratory-Descriptive Designs.- Simulations.- Mathematical Modeling.- Cross-Cultural Designs.- Data-Collection Methods.- Observational Methods.- Self-Report Methods.- Environmental-Behavioral Research: The Future.- References.- Author Index.

Details

ISBN1468422790
PublisherSpringer-Verlag New York Inc.
Year2012
ISBN-101468422790
ISBN-139781468422795
FormatPaperback
Publication Date2012-03-30
ImprintSpringer-Verlag New York Inc.
SubtitleTheory, Research, and Applications
Country of PublicationUnited States
Edited byDaniel Stokols
DEWEY155.9
Short TitlePERSPECTIVES ON ENVIRONMENT &
Edition DescriptionSoftcover Repri
LanguageEnglish
MediaBook
Pages360
Place of PublicationNew York, NY
IllustrationsXIV, 360 p.
Dimensions152mm x 229mm x 20mm

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